My name is Árpád. Árpád Papp-Váry. We have probably met before at a conference or a festival, so you already know a bit about me.
If not, in short: I am a marketing professor and I also work as a branding consultant.
I have collected some of my English publications here. Check them out and do not hesitate to send me an e-mail if you are interested in my work: email@example.com
The Marketing Point of View: Countries as Brands (2006)
Countries behave, in many ways, just like brands. People have certain images of countries that can be activated by simply mentioning the (brand) name. These country brands fight their own battle for tourists, incoming investments, better position of their products, and for a stonger role in international organizations.
This paper was first presented in 2006 at the international conference "European Identity, National Identity: Stereotypes, Images and Concepts". Later the article was published in a quarterly journal, "Kommunikáció, Média, Gazdaság".
The Role and Effects of Country Branding: Country Image in an Enlarged European Union (2007)
This study examines some hypotheses about country brands related to six Central and Eastern European countries: Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia, Romania and Estonia. The study is based on an online research, I have created two homepages: one in Hungarian to survey Hungarian university/college students' opinion and another one in English to find out the opinion of citizens of other European countries. Altogether 536 Hungarians and 428 foreigners filled in the questionnaire.
Click here to download the summary of the findings.
From country branding to competitive identity - and even further (2017)
In recent years, country image centres and country brand councils have been created all over the world, because countries noticed that a better country brand may result in more tourists, stimulate foreign investment, and strengthen export. However, country brands and their development, that is, country branding also has its special characteristics. This article discusses these aspects, and concludes with the dilemma if there is country branding at all. Download the article here!
Country branding: What branding? Relevant terminologies and their possible interpretations in the case of countries (2018)
The study systematizes concepts and terms related to country branding such as nation branding, state branding, place branding, destination branding, location branding, territory branding, and region branding as well as exploring the similarities and differences among these expressions. In this context it also analyzes the most relevant country case study articles with titles that may include country branding or related terms in many forms. At the end of the study, a summary table systematizing the terminology of the topic is included, which is a novel approach to the subject. The practical significance of the study becomes clear if organizations involved in the development of country brands consider the abovementioned theoretical framework while developing their own strategies. As a result of the systematization, country branding will be more consciously used in the subchapters of strategic materials discussing how to increase country competitiveness. The article can be downloaded here.
Country branding as a special type of place branding – An overview of the related terminology (2019)
Country branding has become a ‘hot topic’ in the last two decades, and country image centers, country brand councils were set up all over Europe simultaneously. While the practice of the field is quite developed, its theoretical framework is lagging behind. For this reason, the present study systematizes concepts and terms related to country branding as a special type of place branding. As a result of the systematization of the relevant terminology, country branding can be managed more consciously, and country competitiveness may be increased. Download the article here!
The Possible Ways of Country Brand Communication and Their Classification Based on the POE Model (2019)
The number of marketing communications tools and channels is steadily increasing – in addition, this growth has been accelerated since the emergence of the Internet and social media. This review article attempts to present the variety of available options with the help of the POE (paid, owned, earned) model and describe their advantages and disadvantages. The novelty of the study is that it focuses on a review of country communication campaigns and initiatives. The article summarizes the possible ways of country brand communication according to the POE model in a summary table, which may also contribute to the work of academics and practitioners in the field. Download it here!
Some Critical Remarks on the Branding of Countries
In short, country branding is actually nothing else than the technical application of branding for countries in order to improve the reputation of the country, thus attracting more tourists and investors, improving export, etc. – in other words, resulting in greater competitiveness and more money. The topic is very exciting, but also extremely complex, and quite often divisive, generating emotions in many cases. It is no coincidence that the opposition of country branding is just as large as its support, and critical voices continue to strengthen. We present these aspects in our article as food for thought – not necessarily in order of importance. Download the article here!
The Limits of Country Branding – 25 Challenges in the Special Field of Public, Non-profit and Social Marketing (2019)
Country branding is probably the biggest challenge in public, non-profit and social marketing. Thus, a total of 25 critical remarks on country branding are discussed including the opinion that a good national image cannot be built according to a plan, with the precision of an engineer. It can only be earned, also because it is impossible to coordinate so many things at a time, not to mention that consistent branding is basically impracticable because of successive political cycles. The article also discusses that if a country has a ‘country image centre’ or ‘country brand council’, it does not necessarily mean that the country has a better brand image. The cause of the problem is often that many people still identify country branding with logo design and a catchy slogan, although country branding is much more than that. In addition, there is no country branding without a country strategy – in other words, there is no country brand building without country building. Last but not least, we should remind ourselves that countries are primarily not brands but countries. Read the limits of country branding here!
Country brand rankings during the Covid-19 pandemic: „One thing is important: To be good now” (2021)
Like classic brand rankings, country brand rankings are also available. Moreover, there is a new one almost every year, such as the Anholt Nation Brands Index, the FutureBrand Country Brand Index, the Anholt Good Country Index, the Bloom Consulting Country Brand Ranking (Tourism Edition and Trade Edition), the Young&Rubicam Best Countries, the Reputation Institute Country RepTrak and the Global Soft Power Index. It is impossible to discuss all of these in a single article, therefore we only scrutinize the first three of them. One of the aims of the publication is to present their methodology, dimensions and attributes, as well as the results of the individual rankings, with special regard to how they changed in 2020. The other purpose of this writing is to highlight that the basis of a good country brand and a good country image is in fact nothing more than the good country itself – similar to a classic brand, where the starting point is a good product and service. Click here for the article!
The Role of Visual and Verbal Identity in Country Branding: Country Names, Slogans and Logos (2010)
Creating a visual and verbal identity is a small but important part of building any country's brand. It includes a logo, a slogan, all the basic elements of marketing communication and the selection of the best brand name as well. This article shows some recent examples for country name changes and categorizes country slogans and logos into groups. Click here to download the article! If you want to see all the logos, you can find the pdf here.
A Categorization Of Country Logos, Or How Individual Countries Focus On “The Heart Of The Branding Programs (2019)
This article attempts to classify national tourism logos into categories. During our research, we examined all 193 UN member states, only 22 of which did not possess a logo. We finally classified the 171 tourism logos into ten groups, and the so-called ’other’ category was also created. We also analyzed how constant such country symbols are. For this purpose, we drew on an analysis performed in 2009, and compared the logos from that year with current ones. The topicality of the study is increased by the fact that the Hungarian Tourism Agency announced an open tender for a new country symbol in 2018, also discussed in our study. Click here for the country logos!
The Role of Visual Identity Guides and Brand Books in Country Branding – How to Get Inspiration from Finland and Estonia (2019)
One of the important elements of the country branding activity is the visual identity guide defining the logo and colours used by the country and the basic visual implementations used in most frequently used offline and online communication tools. Although visual identity guides are extremely useful, we have to admit that they mostly serve as an aid for advertising agencies designated to country branding, helping them to create country advertisements that are as consistent visually as possible. However, if we want to achieve a greater impact involving the citizens in the promotion of their country, we need more: a so-called brand book. This tool also provides guidance verbally: it tells the “story” of the country – what are its typical attributes, why is it special, what is its character, what values does it represent, what messages does it communicate, and how – more precisely, how it should communicate in order to have maximum impact. The present article provides countries with advice on this topic through an analysis of the brand books of Estonia and Finland. Click here for the Estonian and Finnish examples!
Country slogans and logos: findings of a benchmarking study (2010)
The name of a country, its logo(s) and slogan(s) are important vehicles for development of country brand equity. This paper shows some recent examples for country name changes and categorize country slogans and logos into groups. The study concludes that creating a coherent visual and verbal identity plays a key role in the global competition for tourists, investors and customers. However, even the most brilliant logo and slogan is powerless if it is not backed up by a comprehensive branding system. Download the article here!
The role of country names in country branding (2015)
Although regarding the name of a country as a brand name is natural for place branding professionals, it may offend laymen. However, country names and brand names do cause the same reaction: when we see or hear a specific country name, we have certain associations in our mind. Then these associations help us decide whether we visit the place as a tourist, invest capital there, or purchase the products of the country.
But can a country change its name the way product brands do from time to time? Changing a country name is most definitely a much more complicated issue than using a new product name, as geographical names (including country names) usually have long historical roots. These names are also strongly connected to the life of local inhabitants who have got used to them, therefore they are not easy to change.
Still, there are examples that could be analysed from the aspect of branding. See these examples here The role of country names in country branding
Hungary or Magyarország? Which brand name is better for country branding? (2019)
A cleverly chosen brand name can significantly increase the value of a lesser quality product, while a poor brand name may hinder the sales of a quality product. It might be strange, but this analogy is also valid for countries. In many cases, we judge a country or nation by its name if we do not know anything about it. Therefore it is quite a dilemma to decide which name Hungary shall use in each country as far as it is possible to choose any of them, because the adjective “hun” of the country name “Hungary” refers to Huns and their ruler, Attila. Therefore it is possible that in certain cases the country should use the name Magyarország, or they should use it in combination with Hungary. The study attempts to resolve this dilemma and makes suggestions, while other countries (and their names) are also discussed. Hungary or Magyarország? Click here for the answer!
Eastern European marketing campaigns in response to the negative image in Western European media (2015)
The essence of country branding is the introduction of a specific place in a way that is attractive to tourists, investors, international organizations or even potential settlers. Most countries spend millions of euros each year on delivering their positive messages. But what can be done if a whole negative campaign against the country has been created? The Romanian, Polish, Hungarian and other responses mentioned in this article will show it. Read the article here: Eastern European marketing campaigns in response to the negative image in Western European media
Country positioning with ICT case study of Estonia (2017)
Although a lot of countries have started to brand themselves around the world, only a few of them have achieved breakthrough success. However, there are some good examples. One of these countries is Estonia who in the early 2000’s decided to become e-country, a digital society. The leaders of the country even considered changing the name to E-stonia. Although the official name of the country remained the same, and the hyphen was not included in the English name, ”E” has become a dominant factor in life: essentially all communication and developments are connected with electronics and information technology. This publication presents the „E-Stonia” case study. It was also published in a Serbian scientific journal, that version can be downloaded here.
A Successful Example of Complex Country Branding: The E-Estonia Positioning Concept and Its Relation to the Presidency of the Council of the EU (2018)
Estonia held the presidency of the Council of the European Union for six months from 1 July to 31 December 2017. This was a great opportunity to strengthen and shape the country image, also known as the country brand. They do have something to build on: there have been very few countries in recent years and decades where country branding was so conscious. It was a brave choice: in the early 2000s, they decided that they would become E-Estonia. This is not just a means to communicate but also involves policies and tangible developments regarding electronics, IT, and brand new technologies in order to build the most advanced digital society of Europe and the world. But how did this appear during the EU Presidency and how are Estonian citizens involved in branding? This rather lengthy case study explores the concept as a good practice, also setting an example for other countries. Read the case study of E-Estonia here!
Silicon Savannah – Innovation Ecosystems of Africa with a Special Regard to Kenya (2019)
In Africa, where 60% of the population is under 25 years, the enormous and diverse business environment suffers from a number of problems, ranging from access to funding to gaps in government support and weaknesses in the education system. Undoubtedly, there is the need for better governance among the continent’s nations in order to catch up and to develop creative economies with high added value products. Considering Kenya, the information and communication industry can be a breakthrough point thanks to positive, “enabler regulation” and governmental support. IT sector could serve as an “escape card” from the captivity of history and geography. Read the article here.
Who has the strongest brand? The position of the Visegrád Four in country brand rankings (2019)
Global brand rankings measuring the strength and value of various brands are popular in the world of products and services. Similar rankings created with a rather complex methodology are also available in the case of countries. The current article aims to provide a brief overview of the criteria of each ranking, and analyze the position of Visegrád countries in these lists. As it turns out, the rankings show that Poland has the strongest brand, followed by Hungary and the Czech Republic with a roughly equal position (with the latter leading slightly), and last, but not least, Slovakia usually occupies the last position among the four countries if it is taken into account at all. Read the results here!
Renaming as a tool of city branding (2011)
The name is one of the most important elements of branding. That stands for city branding too: the name of the city defines a lot of things. Just like with “classic brands” it’s good if it refers to the product (the city)it raises positive feelings, it’s short and easy to pronounce, and most of all it makes it unique – so there are no other cities with the same name. There is no reason to surprise that sometime mayors are changing the name of the city. In the past this had political reasons: the Soviet Union’s big leader’s names were often used in the cities’ names. Nowadays the changes have marketing reasons: with the new name they want to attract more tourists or potential investors. It happens that a company buys itself into the city’s name and becomes its sponsor. Of course the local people don’t like this; the names are usually really old, and changing them can harm the historic roots. This article looks at a couple of name-changing and sums up their experiences. Download it here!
Another version (The ultimate tool of city branding) can be downloaded here.
The Evolution and Evaluation of City Brand Models and Rankings (2011)
The competition between cities is growing more than ever due to cheaper and easier travel opportunities, international investors, a growing free labour force flow and of course due to the Internet. Besides the capabilities of the cities, the emphasis is also on how well they can brand themselves. As a consequence the number of tourists, investors, new inhabitants, or the products of the city depend on the success of this. These also affect the locals and how proud and content they are living in the city. Particularly in the face of today's uncertain economic climate, it's vital to understand the forces and opinions that drive business towards and away from these cities. Fortunately for the cities, more and more brand models and rankings are available to assess their stand among others in respect to image as well as pointing out the shortcomings that need developments and generally direct them on a specific route of branding. Although these models use different methodology, the rankings show the same cities finishing in the top.
Click here for the rankings!
A shorter version (City Brand Models and Rankings) can be downloaded here.
The Anholt-GMI City Brand Hexagon and the Saffron European City Brand Barometer: A comparative study (2011)
Fortunately for cities, more and more brand models and rankings are available to assess their standing among others in respect to image and to reveal their comparative shortcomings. Although these models use different methodology, the rankings show the same cities finishing in the top. Click here for the results!
The Application of the 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P and 8P Models in City Branding (2015)
City branding is regarded as a comparatively new field: although it has been dealt with in practice for a long time, scientific literature is only catching up with it nowadays. Several models have appeared in the past years which state that a city can be interpreted and developed as a brand. This article presents the 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P and 8P models briefly, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. We may easily think that it is all about just one model, the famous 4P, that is, marketing mix with its extensions. However, as we will see later, the notions behind the letters P are often very different; therefore, 5 completely different approaches will be discussed. Here: The Application of the 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P and 8P Models in City Branding
Post-Pandemic Re-Positioning in a Cultural Tourism City: From Overtourism to E-Tourism (2022)
The aim of the chapter is to provide recommendations for cities that are aiming to reposition themselves in the post-pandemic period in terms of image, product development, and the attraction of different segments of visitors. It is aimed at those readers who seek to understand the role that digital tools can play in the information provision and promotion of cities, especially for younger tourists who may have been more attracted by night-time activities in the pre-COVID period and who could be redirected to other activities or areas in future strategies. A case study of Budapest is presented that is typical of a European cultural tourism destination that has also suffered from overtourism in recent years. Read more here!
Future proofness in the post-Covid tourism sector (2021)
It is increasingly justified by conscious thinking about the future why it is a good agreement to use the character of a competitive athlete in tourism branding as well as in tourism-related branding. Prospective researchers bluntly say that future-proof businesses should be designed like sports organizations. The analogy is good because a successful athlete’s character is built on three defining pillars: speed, awareness and action. This trio of values will be useful for those who work in the areas of tourism services, tourism management or tourism development. The present study, referring to the results of recent global studies as well as Hungarian researches at a number of points, provides marketing and management responses for each of the challenges described in the sub-paragraphs. Download the article here.
Sell the Country, Sell the Product! The Theory and Practice of the Country of Origin Effect (2005)
We are globalizing. We live in a world where the products we purchase may come from any country. Still, the country where the product comes from (or to be more specific, the country that we believe to be the country of origin) plays an important role in consumer choice.
I presented this paper at the 3rd International Conference on Management, Enterprise and Benchmarking in 2005.
Click here to download the article.
Attractive Israel - Country-image building with the help of marketing communication: Israel (2010)
The case of Israel is unique from many different point of view. At the same time, this is one of the most ancient and relatively younger nations. Although there was an Israel thousands of years ago, the territory has been invaded by different peoples. So, the independent Israel, as a state has only existed since 1948. This country branding case study was written together with Balázs Gyémánt. For the details, click here!
Startup Nation Case Study - Modern Science Diplomacy as a Tool of Geographic Specific Branding and Economic Development (2019)
Israel is a great example for well designed branding activities. Numerous governmental and nongovernmental players are forming a mature ecosystem in maintaining and developing the Startup Nation brand. The study attempts to outline and provide an overall picture of the innovation dominated elements of the Israeli Public Diplomacy (Hasbara) based on synthesizing personal interviews of study visits and secondary information. Download the article here!
Science Diplomacy of the EU members states in Israel – the Startup Nation – with a special regard to the V4 countries (2019)
The Authors’ study strives to outline the aspirations of scientific and technological cooperation activities of the EU member states in Israel with an emphasis on the V4 countries. Based on the ecosystem visits, personal interviews and secondary information, authors believe that exploring the science diplomacy of Israel can unfold several good practices that can be implemented in the V4 region as a tool of high value-added investments’ promotion. Read the conference paper here!
‘Land of Creation’: The Position, Brand Owners, and Contributors for Israel’s Branding
The modern and independent State of Israel celebrated the seventieth anniversary of its proclamation of independence in 2018. Besides this landmark anniversary, the remarkable development of Israel’s image in the past decade was also a cause for celebration. Nowadays, many people around the world consider Israel as a start-up nation, the stronghold of innovation and risk capital, and the home of outstanding researchers and research organizations – or at least people have this association. Read here about the country branding efforts of Israel!
The Advancing Cybersecurity Ecosystem of Israel: An Overview of Current Challenges and Opportunities in the Early 2020s (2021)
True to its nickname ‘cyber nation', the country of Israel is seen as a kind of role model in terms of intelligence and defence capabilities by many countries. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive but far from a complete picture of the cyber defence ecosystem of Israel, a country with more than 430 start-ups and unicorns valued at billions of US dollars. The authors outline the major incidents of the recent period, as well as current challenges and threats. The purpose of the chapter is to introduce good practices and cooperation for opportunities to policymakers and cybersecurity experts as well. Click here for the details!
Nomen est omen – Tourist image of the Balkans (2018)
The regime change, the South Slavic civil war, global recession and their political, economic and social con¬sequences had a significant impact on the tourism market of South-east Europe and the Balkan region. Many potential visitors to the region were affected by their negative associations with past events, even those that happened many years ago. The image of the Balkan region has become at times almost synonymous with con¬flict, turmoil and unrest. However, these perceptions may be changing and are therefore worthy of exploration. The article provides a tourism oriented analysis of the area’s image as a tourism destination. Click here for the results!
How to choose a city slogan and a city logo - The role of verbal and visual identity in city branding, with examples from Hungarian cities (2017)
This study first examines what elements make a good slogan. What aspects should professionals consider when creating a slogan? What do the examples of American cities tell us, and what can we learn from Hungarian examples?
In the next section, logos are discussed. What should we take into account when designing and approving a logo? How can it become a part of the entire visual identity? What are the typical examples in connection with it? How do Hungarian cities apply them?
All in all, the question is: what makes a good slogan and a good logo in the case of a city?
The role of logos in place marketing – with examples of Hungarian cities (2017)
Logos may be the most tangible elements in the marketing and communications of a city. Logos are good if they capture the character and story of the city, distinguish it from other places, and are capable of inspiring tourists, investors, and, not least, locals. However, if logos are ordinary and meaningless, they may do more harm than good. A logo that is overcrowded with too many elements at the same time is likely to become an incomprehensible montage, thus does not contribute to the improvement of the townscape. The same is true for logos with an oversimplified little sun shining, carrying no clear message. How do Hungarian cities apply them?
A categorization of city slogans drawing on examples from Hungarian cities (2018)
This study first examines what elements make a good slogan. What aspects should professionals consider when creating a slogan? What examples can we see in the United States of America, a country often considered as the homeland of branding (and city branding)? These questions are followed by a discussion of examples from Hungarian cities. The touristic attributes of the country serve as a starting point, but how much do traditionally define main guidelines involving health, active, wine and gastrotourism appear in the slogans of Hungarian cities? Having classified 133 slogans from 91 cities into various categories, we can see if Hungarian cities reinforce clichés, or provide a good example. Download here!
“Discover your destination!” A classification of tourism slogans of countries around the world (2018)
This study attempts to classify the tourism slogans of countries around the world into groups. The categorisation is based on an analysis of slogans from 170 countries, classifying them into 11+1 groups. The results show that slogans including the name of the country (29.4%) and solutions including the term You/Your (12.9%) were the most popular, while 10.6% of the countries tried to position themselves by linking their slogans to a larger geographical unit. The results also demonstrate that “Discover”-type slogans (8.8%) and mottos including the words “beautiful” and “wonderful” (9.4%) are still very popular. The following six categories that use words such as life, nature and happiness or depict feelings only amounted to 2.7–7.1%. The share of slogans that could not be classifi ed into any of the categories is 18.2%. In addition to the 170 countries using any kind of slogans, 26 countries do not have a tourism slogan. These countries can be considered as a thirteenth group. See the classification here!
The Use of Tourism Slogans and Logos in the Case of European Capitals – A Possible Classification (2020)
The study attempts to categorize and analyze the tourism logos and slogans of European capitals, thus providing a comprehensive view of the role of logos and slogans in European city branding efforts. During our research we examined a total of 52 capitals of countries related to the European continent. Having examined the dominant colours in the 37 tourism logos of capitals, we found out that the most dominant colours were red (27%), followed by blue and black (both 22-22%). However, an equal number of capitals are colourful in the sense that their logos consist of at least 3 colours (22%). In the case of slogans (36 pieces), ones with an emotional effect (25%) are in the first position. It is followed by calls to action (22%). Slogans that display some positioning in geography/value or highlight the attraction of the specific capital occurred in 17-17% each. In addition, we also found other slogans (19% of the cases) that could not be listed in any of the categories mentioned above. See the results here!
Advancement in Geoeconomics Through Tourism Promotion – International Best Practices of Influencer Marketing for Corporate Brand Managers and Policy Makers (2020)
The present study presents international best practices of involving influencers by policy makers responsible for city branding from Eindhoven, Helsinki, The Hague and Miami. Furthermore, it examines the theoretical background and discusses exciting questions. What is the definition of an influencer? How should brands and cities cooperate with them? Why is Instagram an extremely important platform? How can influencers visiting a city (or living there) facilitate city marketing? The authors attempt to provide ideas and inspiration for corporate brand managers and public policy makers already working with influencers or planning to do so. Read the article here! Or if you are interested in a different version, download the pdf here.
Hungarian “Borats” – The image of Hungary in Hollywood movies (2011)
The television-series Sex and the City helped a great deal in motivating tourists to return to New York City after the events of September 11. The Australian “country-image center” supported the campaign of the movie “Australia” with 20% of its annual budget, 6 million dollars. On the other hand, no one asked Borat to “popularize” Kazakhstan, in fact their president protested directly at George Bush. But what is with Budapest, Hungary and the Hungarians?
Hungary’s image in Hollywood movies and its possible impact on tourists and film-investors (2011)
This essay collects and analyses the effects of Hungary’s appearance in international movies. The analysis is divided into five groups:
- When the film was shot here, but Budapest appears as Berlin, Rome, Paris, Moscow, or Buenos Aires (Spy Game, Munich, Red Heat, Evita, Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam)
- When the shooting and the story also took place in Hungary (I Spy)
- When Hungary appears in the movie, although it was not shot here (MacGyver – Thief of Budapest, The Transporter 3.)
- When none of the previous cases happens, but one of the characters is Hungarian (Casablanca, The Whole Nine Yards, Iron Man, Die Hard 3.)
- When the characters speak Hungarian, but it sounds as a nonsense language (Blade Runner).
Analysis of Budapest as a Film Tourism Destination (2021)
The Hungarian film industry has undergone a huge change recently, becoming a pull sector and repositioning the country in Europe. The economic performance of Budapest's film industry is growing steadily, which has also been facilitated by the strategic steps of recent years, making the capital a key player on the film map of Europe. In the case of Budapest, the diversity of the city is clearly outlined, as it primarily serves as a backdrop for various film productions. Using primary and secondary sources, the research focuses on the supply elements of film tourism in Budapest and the changes in the economic environment affecting the film industry. In the analysis, different types of film tourism are explored through interviews with the actors of film tourism. The research seeks to highlight factors that can boost film tourism in Budapest and make the city even more prominent on the film map of Europe. Read the details here!
From Nuclear Disaster to Film Tourism: The Impact of the Chernobyl Mini-Series on the Exclusion Zone (2021)
The research explores how a well-known historical location associated with disaster tourism became a destination of film tourism. Thanks to the HBO miniseries, the nuclear accident zone around Chernobyl registered a record number of tourists in 2019. The study includes a complex tourism analysis of Chernobyl. The examination of the demand and supply sides of local film tourism is followed by an analysis of elements such as the number of visitors and the supply of thematic routes. The study also analyses interviews with local travel companies and information on their social media platforms. You can read more here.
Let’s Bring Hungary into Fashion!
Souvenirs in a New and Organized Manner (2013)
For every country it is quite important to understand what tourists take home from their visit. It is referred to as souvenir, but some call it country merchandising. Among these items there are the usual “favourites”, which can be found in every country with its own label: T-shirt, baseball cap, bag, mug, pen, magnet, key chain, etc. In terms of country branding there are numerous problems with this kind of merchandise:
- Most of them are poor quality.
- They are rarely distinctive and unique of the given country.
- Locals would not even think of using or wearing these items, nor would they be proud of doing so.
- There is little or no regulation by the state regarding the visual identity of the country.
- It is even more seldom to find a nationwide plan for this case.
The article will show two recent Hungarian initiatives which try to change this picture. These initiatives end up in satisfied tourists who are able to buy good quality souvenirs and local citizens, who can proudly wear and use them, contributing to a stronger identity. The research is based on in-depth interviews with the leaders of the mentioned initiatives.
Click here to see these initiatives!
Another version (Rethinking and reorganization of souvenirs) can be downloaded here.
Viral advertising in tourism: a creative tool to promote countries and cities (2017)
Settlements, regions and countries producing viral videos desire to draw the attention of tourists or the media.
But what should a viral video promoting tourism be like? This study presents some of the most successful international best practices. Examples include a viral campaign for a country with several million citizens and an advertising campaign for a village with 78 inhabitants. There is one thing in common: we can learn from all of them. Click here for the details!
How to Reach the Next Generation: Hip-hop Marketing (2006)
Hip-Hop touches on music, clothes and shoes, culture and lifestyle. Jumping on the hip-hop bandwagon is a sure-fire method to reach into the wallets of the younger generation and establish the much needed brand loyalty.
This article was published in the book "Marketing from the Trenches: Perspectives on the Road Ahead", edited by Nicolas Papadopoulos and Cleopatra Veloutsou.
Girl Power in Tourism - How to Market a Country to Women (2005)
Every day we can read a new scientific study that confirms the physiological differences between the sexes. However, men and women are not only biologically but also "shopologically" different. Women are the major target group of fashion, beauty, health... and tourism. As this case study shows, it is definitely worth creating targeted messages to women since they have the money, they usually have more time than men, and they are the ones who make the decisions on travel within the family. Read more about "girl power" and the "Ladies' Britain" campaign here.
Brands and Branding - Lecture at IBS (2007)
My Greek friend, Mihalis Kavaratzis Ph.D. invited me to IBS (International Business School Budapest) to hold a lecture on Brands and Branding. I collected some of the best recent branding ideas, so the students enjoyed the presentation very much - according to Mihalis. Here is your chance to download the pdf.
The Birth of Branding – A Historical Review of the First Brands (2016)
Which was the first brand? This is a question that marketing professionals and ordinary people interested in brands may ask. And by the way, when did brands appear in our life? Well, these questions are not easy to answer. This study summarizes our knowledge of the topic, and concludes by presenting how the tools used by the first brands can be applied for today’s modern brands. Download „The birth of branding” here!
How to Build a Sport Celebrity Brand? - A Case Study of David Beckham (2009)
David Beckham may not be the finest footballer but he is definitely the biggest football celebrity brand. But how could a footballer turn into a global brand? And why him? Having looked at this summary, it will be much easier to answer this question. Click here to download the pdf (with a lot of pictures).
Puskás, the World Brand: Celebrity Endorsements, Brand Expansions and Other Curious Phenomena (2013)
According to various surveys, „Puskás” is the most well-known Hungarian word. This „brand” is not just known around the world, but respected and loved. Puskás became a world star in a time when there was no Internet and television had just started gaining popularity. But why did he become so great, not only as a player but as a brand too? The article looks for the marketing aspects of this brilliant story. It covers his celebrity endorsements/sponsors, and the products/brands which used or use his (brand) name. The possible future of the Puskás brand is also discussed. Click here for the Puskás-story!
The Use of Sports Celebrities in Advertising: Best and Worst Practices (2011)
When should we use an athlete, a sports star in advertising? Which type of product or service is best suitable for these stars to advertise? What can we expect from these ads? Who is the ideal sports star? Is it true that social media is going to transform this area as well? For our research we examined print ads and television commercials using famous athletes such as David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Rafael Nadal, Tiger Woods, Maria Sharapova or Serena Williams. Click here to download the full article!
Creativity through the eyes of first year marketing students (2012)
In our higher education institution, the Budapest College of Communication, Business and Arts, we have introduced an experimental creative thinking training programme spanning two days. The programme precedes all other subjects - as a matter of fact, this is the students' first contact point with the institution. In the first part of the course we examine how newly accepted students of the bachelor programme in commerce and marketing approach creativity, what they consider the most creative thing, and who is the most creative personality in their opinion. We also ask when was the last time they had a creative idea, and what their motivation was behind it. As we (me and my colleagues Gábor Rekettye and Andrea Kunsági) evaluate the results of the survey, we also touch upon the extent how student opinions about creativity reflect the statements of the bibliography. Download it here!
Marketing workshop launched at Budapest College of Communication and Business (2011)
Budapest College of Communication and Business (BCCB) aims to develop its presence in the labour market. The aims of the project include the improvement of students’ opportunities when entering the labour market and decreasing unemployment in Hungary. According to the requirements of the project, BCCB has established five workshops in different fields of study. These workshops can serve as a platform for students to gain more practical knowledge in contemporary issues and enjoy the opportunities offered by real projects and research. The aim of the marketing-workshop is to hire 8-10 students who can actively participate in upcoming projects. The possible areas of research for the marketingworkshop include SME marketing, country branding, country image-building and contemporary issues in marketing communication. See the details here.
The appearance of personal branding as a subject in higher education (2019)
In our study, we examine the relationship and interaction between personal branding and education, including higher education. So far, personal branding has not been a subject of the utmost importance within the framework of education. However though, the results of our survey demonstrate that if personal branding as a subject is included in the syllabus of higher education, it may support the chances of jobseekers and new entrants on the labour market, facilitating their successful employment. Thus we can get a clear picture of the necessity for including personal branding in the processes of education, which is facing new challenges. Click here to download the article!
Calculable creativity synergies: The role and usefulness of calculability in the creative process (2018)
According to public opinion, routine and creativity are far from each other, or calculability and creativity even stand in contrast with each other. This study summarizes the synergies of two seemingly opposite concepts. The explanation of the notion of creativity is followed by a description of creative thinking, creative people, popular misbeliefs, brainstorming, the generation of ideas, and the usefulness of habitualness and calculability in the creative process. The study concludes that contrary to popular belief, calculability enhances and facilitates creativity, which also plays a significant role in successfully facing the challenges of administration and management. Download the article here!
Growing importance of creative thinking in higher education in the 21st century (2021)
Our central argument is that creativity is at the heart of knowledge economy and successful life. In the first part of the paper, we introduce the contextual background and define relevant key concepts (skills gap, creative thinking, transversal skills, soft skills, changing domains), then we explain conceptual changes and the growing complexity of creative thinking. In the second part, we analyze some research data from focus group interviews at Budapest Metropolitan University. The findings put great emphasis on teachers’ personality, interactive teaching methods and learning atmosphere. Finally, we conclude our thoughts posing some questions and dilemmas. You can read our article here.
Building business fables, tales and short stories into marketing education (2012)
Tales are short and business people have less and less time. Tales carry a universal moral, while managers look for basic principles. Tales are simple, and simplification is essential in business world. Good always wins in tales, while workers in the corporate world are success-oriented. In addition, the smallest one always wins in tales, and we all need such motivating examples. It is no wonder that an increasing number of short story books used in business education (that also can be read during a short flight or train) has been published in the past decade. Before we would sneer at the genre, it is worth seeing who the authors are - they include peo-ple with considerable scientific record such as John P. Kotter ("Our Iceberg is Melting!"), Ken Blanchard ("The One Minute Manager" series), Spencer Johnson ("Who Cut the Cheese?" among others), Stephen C. London ("FISH!"). Click here to download the article!
The Impact of Megatrends on Marketing Communications Education. Results of an International Survey Among Educators (2020)
This paper examines the global megatrends affecting business practices and marketing and marketing communications education using the results of an international survey carried out by the authors to understand the effects of global megatrends, which included businesspeople as well as academics. The high share of educators in the sample allowed the researchers to make three predictions on requested changes in business and marketing education. The projections formulated in the study highlight the most significant changes: digital revolution or the advance of technology, the changing nature of marketing communications indicating the need for integration and emphasizing the importance of online communication, and finally the cultural sensitivity graduates must possess as a result of the changes taking place in higher education institutions. Download the article here!
Marketing wars - military analogies in the marketing and management literature (2015)
War metaphors have been used for a long time in the world of marketing, and, in a broader sense, that of management. The most popular sources are probably the wisdoms of Chinese General Sun Tzu, the advices of German General Clausewitz, and, of course, the guerrilla ideas of Che Guevara. Click here for the article: Marketing wars - military analogies in the marketing and management literature
The effect of trust on the performance and satisfaction of co-operative members at the Paprikakertész producer organisation (2017)
This paper examines the impact of trust in an agricultural marketing cooperative. The aim is to explore how the trust among members and between members and management affect the commitment of members towards the cooperative (group cohesion) and their satisfaction with the cooperative. Trust is examined from two dimensions: cognitive and affective. The main author of the article is my great colleague, Zsolt Baranyai. Click here to download the paper.
Drivers of cooperation activity in Hungarian agriculture (2018)
The present study attempts to identify factors that influence the readiness of Hungarian agricultural producers’ to effectively and efficiently cooperate with each other. Analyses based on the binomial logistic regression method have revealed a clear correlation between activities conducive to cooperation, the demographics of producers, farming conditions and the level of trust. Click here for the details!
Drivers of machinery sharing arrangements - Experiences of empirical survey in Hungarian agriculture (2019)
In most Central and Eastern European countries, several more or less successful attempts have been made since the 1990s to introduce machine sharing partnerships similar to the ones in Western Europe. Such efforts in Hungary proved to be a failure because of the farmers’ resistance. Previous research on the topic mentioned the farmers’ little willingness to cooperate as the cause of the failure. Therefore, in this study we use the results of a questionnaire survey (N = 407) to try to identify the factors affecting the farmers’ willingness to cooperate. Click here for the details!
Research of microregion-related renewable energy tenders for local governments (2021)
The aim of the representative primary research was to assess and examine the use and application possibilities of green and renewable energy in all the twenty-five municipalities in the micro-region of Gyöngyös, Hungary. The topics of environmental protection, attitudes towards an environmentally conscious lifestyle and environmental sustainability were also important areas of the research. Click here for the results!
Value and efficiency in a changing business environment (2018)
The main goal of every profitable business is to increase its productivity and efficiency. It is important to increase the production, the revenue, the profit and the expenditure decreasing, but the highest result with the smallest investment is the efficiency. The advancement of digitization brings new challenges to economists in every area. To be able to adapt to a changing business environment, you need to know the value. Value has been influenced with the customer's/user’s purpose, requirements and perception. Details can be read here.
Is sustainability a value element of higher education? (2019)
Universities play an outstanding role in sustainable development. On the one hand, they seek to manage their direct social, economic and environmental impacts as a service firm. On the other hand, they are able to shape social attitudes through the educational services provided by them as they educate the next generation of decision-makers. Moreover, they may contribute to the solution of global problems serving as scientific workshops. However, we may wonder if this is important for their key stakeholders: university students. What can we learn from the example of British universities in this context? Read the book chapter here!
Are there no new ad techniques under the sun? How the methods presented to us today as 'new discoveries' appeared in Hungarian advertising literature a century ago (2016)
It is a frequently held notion that advertising appeared in Hungary (and the whole of East-Central Europe) and began to develop rapidly only during the 1990’s, after the fall of Communism. Indeed, today’s advertising professionals will throw around sonorous terms such as ‘brand’, ‘word of mouth’, ‘integrated marketing communications’, ‘USP’, ‘CSR’, ‘astroturfing’, ‘AIDA’, ‘collective advertising’, and so on, with a casual ease that would have been unimaginable 25 years ago. Moreover, some of those terms are used in their original English form, showing, as it were, that they have been adopted straight from ‘the West’, and that the concepts they refer to are so fresh that no Hungarian equivalents have been created yet. But have Hungarian advertising experts really adopted these concepts from abroad? As we will see, the answer is a clear ‘no’. Hungarian advertising was well-established already by the 1910’s and 1920’s, and Hungarian advertising science was in the process of becoming firmly grounded too. Several works were published that laid the foundations of advertising. . Even more interestingly, the abovementioned concepts already appeared in these works written almost a hundred years ago, even though they did not use today’s professional terminology at the time. Explore the beginnings of Hungarian advertising science here!
The beginnings of Hungarian advertising science in the 1910’s and 1920’s – Other names for advertising terms known and used today (2015)
The aim of this study has been to explore the beginnings of Hungarian advertising science and to show that today’s marketing and advertising continue to use much of the knowledge recorded as early as in the 1910’s and 1920’s. Click here for the details!
What makes good advertising? 12 timeless principles based on the advice of famous advertising gurus (2015)
What makes good advertising? It is an eternal topic with several opinions including online forums and people of the academia taking a stand. Some people think that there is a single answer to this question such as ”42” in The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams. Others say that the question is not so simple. This study aims to present what people creating advertisements think about the topic. Altogether 12 important principles will be discussed, all based on the advice of famous advertising gurus. Click here for the 12 timeless principles!
The Depiction of Advertising Industry in Novels and Their Incorporation in Education (2012)
While many quantitative methods are available to judge advertising profession, yet no or limited qualitative research is available. This study aims to do the latter with a unique approach analysing how various novels portray the advertising profession. The author of this article recommends that besides textbooks, novels based on the advertising industry should also be recommended to the students’ attention. By reading these novels they may get a more exact and authentic representation, see the pros and cons of the advertising industry, and find out if they really have the motivation and persistence for this profession.
Click here for the full article!
The original article can be downloaded here.
Black mirror – the portrayal of advertising professionals in Hollywood movies (2015)
The use of movies is a neglected tool in communication education, although there are a large number of motion pictures that feature professionals who work in advertising, marketing, or public relations, and these movies could be used excellently as illustrations in classrooms.
At the same time it is a fact that movies often stereotype these professions; furthermore, in the majority of cases, they depict them negatively. This, however, is probably just the result of the negative public image of the advertising industry in general, and movie makers’ efforts to create portrayals that are as dramatic as possible.
In this study we examine how 27 films depict the marketing and communications profession, with special regard to the characters’ personalities, clothes, appearance, family status, attitude to work and harmful habits.
See the results here: Black mirror – the portrayal of advertising professionals in Hollywood movies
The Rise of Product Placement in Hungary (2011)
In the last few years the European countries are starting to use the rules of the European Union about product placement. First of all it is really important for the European shows, programs and films to stay competitive with the American programs because in the USA product placement is permitted and an important financial source. Second of all with it the „ad avoiders” – who immediately switch the channel because of the commercials – are becoming available to target. The article describes the Hungarian situation and experiences because since this January product placement has become legal again. A detailed comparison between the classic TV commercial and product placement is also shown. Here are the details!
Product Placement and Branded Entertainment: Why Is It More Relevant Than Ever? (2015)
Although product placement, that is, the display of a product in a movie or a TV programme, has a history of several decades, it became increasingly significant and inevitable in the United States and Europe in the past years. This has several reasons:
- changes in consumers’ relationship to advertising
- technological progress, mainly digitalization,
- the reform of advertising,
- the needs of film and TV show production companies, and
- changes of the legal environment.
The Fall of the 30 second spot the rise of product placement and the reasons behind it (2015)
This are several reasons behind the fall of the 30 second spot and the rise of product placement:changes in consumers’ relationship to advertising; technological progess, mainly digitalization; the reform of advertising; the needs of film and TV show production companies, and changes of the legal environment. The study addresses these issues.
A Possible Categorization of Product Placement Based on its Position within the Film or TV Programme (2015)
In a certain sense product placement is the TV advertisement of the 2010s. While traditional advertising, and especially 30-second TV spots experience increasing difficulties, this genre is booming. Marketing literature, however, has only been catching up with practice recently. At this point there are no comprehensive publications on the categories of product placement, or how it could be divided into categories. The article examines what types of product placement we can differentiate by their position within the movie or TV programme. . Click here: A Possible Categorization of Product Placement Based on its Position within the Film or TV Programme.
When is Product Placement Effective from an Advertisers’ Perspective? Possible Methodologies for Measurement. (2015)
Although the history of product placement goes back further than the 30 second TV-spot, there is less experience regarding its measurement. Therefore there is a multitude of approaches and methodologies, but none of them is generally accepted. The article shows two approaches. One of them focuses on how a specific placement can be interpreted as a media appearance. The other one analyses a more complete spectrum, that is, marketing and communications impact and effectiveness. When is Product Placement Effective from an Advertisers’ Perspective? Possible Methodologies for Measurement.
Indicators and methodologies for the assesment of product placement (2015)
How can we measure the effectiveness of product placement, when the product does not appear in a commercial break, but a movie or TV show? There is a multitude of indicators and methodologies, but none of them is generally accepted yet. Click here to see the possible solutions!
The beginnings of product placement in cinematography, literature and fine arts – or, branded entertainment is not something new under the sun (2015)
Most sources state that the appearance of brands in films and TV programmes, that is, product placement, began with E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial in1982. However, as the examples in this study demonstrate, the first appearance of brands in films can be dated much earlier. The Lumiere brothers came up with a two-minute film with half of it being product placement as early as 1896. But, as the study proves, the genre of product placement is even older than films. Many examples prove that brands have been with us for a long time through literature and fine art sas well, and they will probably stay with us for long. Read the details here: The beginnings of product placement in cinematography, literature and fine arts – or, branded entertainment is not something new under the sun.
Product placement in music videos – The Lady Gaga phenomenon (2015)
One does not even have to watch today’s music videos very attentively in order to recognize that brands appear in them from time to time. However, this was not always the case. The changing policies of Music Television, the introduction of VEVO (a music video channel launched on Youtube), and the widening use of product placement in general have all played a significant role in the changes of the landscape, the increasing number of product placements in music videos. The paper examines the spread of brand/product placement in music videos, also known as the Lady Gaga effect. Click here for the Lady Gaga phenomenom: Product placement in music videos!
Old brands come to life: Historic product placement in the light of Mad Men, an American series (2017)
Mad Men is not only one of the favourite series of advertising professionals; its fan base is much wider. The series takes us to the 1960s, offering an insight into the life of a fictional agency called Sterling Cooper. The era depicted here is especially interesting because it was the golden age of television advertisements and advertising agencies located at Madison Avenue as well. Therefore it is exciting to see Sterling Cooper employees working on the briefs of well-known brands, presenting their ideas to the clients. But what are these brands? Click here for the article!
Which way is product placement going? 11 expected trends (2015)
In a certain sense, product placement is the TV commercial of the 2010s. While traditional advertising, and, especially, 30-second TV spots face increasing difficulties, product placement is thriving. Most people grab their remote controls and switch to other channels during commercial breaks, so it seems logical that advertisers tend to place their products/brands in the film/programme itself.
But what about the future of this marketingcommunication genre? The following article discusses 11 predicted trends of product placement. However, we should not forget that the famous physicist Niels Bohr was right: ”Prediction is very difficult, especially if it's about the future”.
Read my predictions here: Which way is product placement going? 11 expected trends
Branded Entertainment and Integrated Product Placement in Tom Hanks Movies (2016)
What brand does Tom Hanks remind us of? Well, most of us would mention FedEx, a courier delivery services company, as his movie Cast Away was mostly about this brand. A Wilson volleyball also plays a significant role in the movie, and its name is also mentioned by the main character several times. However, we do not only see brands in this Tom Hanks movie, as they also appear in almost all his works. The question is if we can point out any trends regarding product placement. Our research was based on the complete filmography of Tom Hanks, from the beginnings in 1980 to the end of year 2013. Click here for the results!
How much does it cost for advertisers to place their products in movies? Categories according to the financial background of the cooperation (2015)
The average budget of American blockbuster movies has now reached 100 million US dollars. It is no wonder that product placement has become almost essential in the financing of these films. But how much does it cost for advertisers to place their brands in movies, and what is the basis of pricing?
Does it actually cost money, or is it a barter? Is it perchance placed for free, or do filmmakers even pay the brands appearing in the movie?
Experience shows that certainly there is no standard way of product placement (especially in the case of movies), thus there is no standard pricing, either.
Read the full article here: How much does it cost for advertisers to place their products in movies?
Hey, Alexa! – The great advertising potential of IOT (Internet of Things) (2021)
IoT is one of the hottest buzzwords in advertising, with new research and recommendations frequently appearing on the subject. The literature is vast, so this paper aims to analyse the opportunities and threats of smart speakers, such as Alexa. You can download the article here.
For a long time we thought that good vodka comes from Russia, Poland or Scandinavia. Today there are prestige vodkas from France, Scotland, Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, and even from New-Zealand and Japan. The most intriguing is that, while in the past even non-Russian vodka brands tried to be a little Russian with their labels such as Gorbatschow, from Germany, or Kalinka, from Hungary, the new and ambitious brands are particularly proud of their origins.
Usual country of origin versus Proud Made In
The highest growth rate could be seen in the past years in the ultra-premium segment of vodkas consisting of bottles priced at 25 or more US dollars. And surprising as it is the winner in this category was not Russia but France. There are other prestige vodkas from Scotland, Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, and even from New-Zealand and Japan. This changing world order can only be accomplished along with the openness of customers. They are the ones intentionally looking for “exotic vodka brands”. The case of vodka clearly shows that today being different and new can mean much more than traditions even in the case of the most traditional markets.
Vodka Globalisation: Competitors from All over the World
The Rise of International Festivals and the Example (Case Study) of Sziget (2019)
The touristic importance of music festivals is increasing throughout Europe. More than a thousand festivals of international interest exist on the continent, and their creative concepts are also increasingly important. Only events with a program including unique elements of international interest can stand out from the crowd. In addition to the creative concept, determinant factors include accommodation options, accessibility, price level, and country/city image. The organizational background of these events is also important: programming, marketing, sponsorships, technological/technical and financial divisions all play an important role in the international character of a festival. What is more, internationalism also needs to appear in the corporate structure. The authors address this topic not only through an analysis of international literature, but also through a case study based on an in-depth interview research performed with the management of the Sziget Festival. The aim of the study is to show music festival organisers and future festival organizers how to build and operate an international festival and enrich the relevant literature, creating a solid theoretical base. Click here for the Sziget case study!
Using New Tools to Attract Visitors to Museums and Heritage Sites (2022)
This book chapter discusses the ways in which museums and heritage sites have adapted to the need to create technology-based experiences in recent decades culminating in the intensive online provision during the COVID period. The aim of both online and live visits should be as inclusive as possible of different audiences, stimulating interesting, rich, multi-cultural experiences that encourage re-visitation or at least recommendation to others. Ideally, sites should create meaningful as well as memorable experiences. This process includes several aspects and is very complex requiring the combination and harmonisation of education, heritage interpretation, marketing skills, and local initiatives. This chapter uses case studies to analyse the extent to which museums are rising to these challenges above, including the principles of the so-called ‘new museology', the need for more innovative technology to create visitor experiences, and COVID-19. Would you like to know more? Click here.