My name is Árpád. Árpád Papp-Váry. We have probably met before at a conference or a festival, so you already know a bit about me.
If not, in short: I am a marketing professor, a journalist and I also work as a branding consultant.
I have collected some of my English publications here. Check them out and do not hesitate to send me an e-mail if you are interested in my work: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Marketing Point of View: Countries as Brands
Countries behave, in many ways, just like brands. People have certain images of countries that can be activated by simply mentioning the (brand) name. These country brands fight their own battle for tourists, incoming investments, better position of their products, and for a stonger role in international organizations.
This paper was first presented in 2006 at the international conference "European Identity, National Identity: Stereotypes, Images and Concepts". Later the article was published in a quarterly journal, "Kommunikáció, Média, Gazdaság".
The Role and Effects of Country Branding: Country Image in an Enlarged European Union
This study examines some hypotheses about country brands related to six Central and Eastern European countries: Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovenia, Romania and Estonia. The study is based on an online research, I have created two homepages: one in Hungarian to survey Hungarian university/college students' opinion and another one in English to find out the opinion of citizens of other European countries. Altogether 536 Hungarians and 428 foreigners filled in the questionnaire.
Click here to download the summary of the findings.
From country branding to competitive identity - and even further (2017)
In recent years, country image centres and country brand councils have been created all over the world, because countries noticed that a better country brand may result in more tourists, stimulate foreign investment, and strengthen export. However, country brands and their development, that is, country branding also has its special characteristics. This article discusses these aspects, and concludes with the dilemma if there is country branding at all. Download the article here!
The Role of Visual and Verbal Identity in Country Branding: Country Names, Slogans and Logos
Creating a visual and verbal identity is a small but important part of building any country's brand. It includes a logo, a slogan, all the basic elements of marketing communication and the selection of the best brand name as well. This article shows some recent examples for country name changes and categorizes country slogans and logos into groups. Click here to download the article! If you want to see all the logos, you can find the pdf here.
Country slogans and logos: findings of a benchmarking study
The name of a country, its logo(s) and slogan(s) are important vehicles for development of country brand equity. This paper shows some recent examples for country name changes and categorize country slogans and logos into groups. The study concludes that creating a coherent visual and verbal identity plays a key role in the global competition for tourists, investors and customers. However, even the most brilliant logo and slogan is powerless if it is not backed up by a comprehensive branding system. Download the article here!
The role of country names in country branding (2015)
Although regarding the name of a country as a brand name is natural for place branding professionals, it may offend laymen. However, country names and brand names do cause the same reaction: when we see or hear a specific country name, we have certain associations in our mind. Then these associations help us decide whether we visit the place as a tourist, invest capital there, or purchase the products of the country.
But can a country change its name the way product brands do from time to time? Changing a country name is most definitely a much more complicated issue than using a new product name, as geographical names (including country names) usually have long historical roots. These names are also strongly connected to the life of local inhabitants who have got used to them, therefore they are not easy to change.
Still, there are examples that could be analysed from the aspect of branding. See these examples here The role of country names in country branding
Eastern European marketing campaigns in response to the negative image in Western European media (2015)
The essence of country branding is the introduction of a specific place in a way that is attractive to tourists, investors, international organizations or even potential settlers. Most countries spend millions of euros each year on delivering their positive messages. But what can be done if a whole negative campaign against the country has been created? The Romanian, Polish, Hungarian and other responses mentioned in this article will show it. Read the article here: Eastern European marketing campaigns in response to the negative image in Western European media
Country positioning with ICT case study of Estonia InnovaEducation
Although a lot of countries have started to brand themselves around the world, only a few of them have achieved breakthrough success. However, there are some good examples. One of these countries is Estonia who in the early 2000’s decided to become e-country, a digital society. The leaders of the country even considered changing the name to E-stonia. Although the official name of the country remained the same, and the hyphen was not included in the English name, ”E” has become a dominant factor in life: essentially all communication and developments are connected with electronics and information technology. This publication presents the „E-Stonia” case study.
Renaming as a tool of city branding
The name is one of the most important elements of branding. That stands for city branding too: the name of the city defines a lot of things. Just like with “classic brands” it’s good if it refers to the product (the city)it raises positive feelings, it’s short and easy to pronounce, and most of all it makes it unique – so there are no other cities with the same name. There is no reason to surprise that sometime mayors are changing the name of the city. In the past this had political reasons: the Soviet Union’s big leader’s names were often used in the cities’ names. Nowadays the changes have marketing reasons: with the new name they want to attract more tourists or potential investors. It happens that a company buys itself into the city’s name and becomes its sponsor. Of course the local people don’t like this; the names are usually really old, and changing them can harm the historic roots. This article looks at a couple of name-changing and sums up their experiences. Download it here!
Another version (The ultimate tool of city branding) can be downloaded here.
The Evolution and Evaluation of City Brand Models and Rankings
The competition between cities is growing more than ever due to cheaper and easier travel opportunities, international investors, a growing free labour force flow and of course due to the Internet. Besides the capabilities of the cities, the emphasis is also on how well they can brand themselves. As a consequence the number of tourists, investors, new inhabitants, or the products of the city depend on the success of this. These also affect the locals and how proud and content they are living in the city. Particularly in the face of today's uncertain economic climate, it's vital to understand the forces and opinions that drive business towards and away from these cities. Fortunately for the cities, more and more brand models and rankings are available to assess their stand among others in respect to image as well as pointing out the shortcomings that need developments and generally direct them on a specific route of branding. Although these models use different methodology, the rankings show the same cities finishing in the top.
Click here for the rankings!
A shorter version (City Brand Models and Rankings) can be downloaded here.
The Application of the 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P and 8P Models in City Branding (2015)
City branding is regarded as a comparatively new field: although it has been dealt with in practice for a long time, scientific literature is only catching up with it nowadays. Several models have appeared in the past years which state that a city can be interpreted and developed as a brand. This article presents the 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P and 8P models briefly, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. We may easily think that it is all about just one model, the famous 4P, that is, marketing mix with its extensions. However, as we will see later, the notions behind the letters P are often very different; therefore, 5 completely different approaches will be discussed. Here: The Application of the 4P, 5P, 6P, 7P and 8P Models in City Branding
Sell the Country, Sell the Product! The Theory and Practice of the Country of Origin Effect
We are globalizing. We live in a world where the products we purchase may come from any country. Still, the country where the product comes from (or to be more specific, the country that we believe to be the country of origin) plays an important role in consumer choice.
I presented this paper at the 3rd International Conference on Management, Enterprise and Benchmarking in 2005.
Click here to download the article.
Attractive Israel - Country-image building with the help of marketing communication: Israel
The case of Israel is unique from many different point of view. At the same time, this is one of the most ancient and relatively younger nations. Although there was an Israel thousands of years ago, the territory has been invaded by different peoples. So, the independent Israel, as a state has only existed since 1948. This country branding case study was written together with Balázs Gyémánt. For the details, click here!
How to choose a city slogan and a city logo - The role of verbal and visual identity in city branding, with examples from Hungarian cities (2017)
This study first examines what elements make a good slogan. What aspects should professionals consider when creating a slogan? What do the examples of American cities tell us, and what can we learn from Hungarian examples?
In the next section, logos are discussed. What should we take into account when designing and approving a logo? How can it become a part of the entire visual identity? What are the typical examples in connection with it? How do Hungarian cities apply them?
All in all, the question is: what makes a good slogan and a good logo in the case of a city?
The role of logos in place marketing – with examples of Hungarian cities (2017)
Logos may be the most tangible elements in the marketing and communications of a city. Logos are good if they capture the character and story of the city, distinguish it from other places, and are capable of inspiring tourists, investors, and, not least, locals. However, if logos are ordinary and meaningless, they may do more harm than good. A logo that is overcrowded with too many elements at the same time is likely to become an incomprehensible montage, thus does not contribute to the improvement of the townscape. The same is true for logos with an oversimplified little sun shining, carrying no clear message. How do Hungarian cities apply them?
A categorization of city slogans drawing on examples from Hungarian cities (2018)
This study first examines what elements make a good slogan. What aspects should professionals consider when creating a slogan? What examples can we see in the United States of America, a country often considered as the homeland of branding (and city branding)? These questions are followed by a discussion of examples from Hungarian cities. The touristic attributes of the country serve as a starting point, but how much do traditionally define main guidelines involving health, active, wine and gastrotourism appear in the slogans of Hungarian cities? Having classified 133 slogans from 91 cities into various categories, we can see if Hungarian cities reinforce clichés, or provide a good example. Download here!
Hungarian “Borats” – The image of Hungary in Hollywood movies
The television-series Sex and the City helped a great deal in motivating tourists to return to New York City after the events of September 11. The Australian “country-image center” supported the campaign of the movie “Australia” with 20% of its annual budget, 6 million dollars. On the other hand, no one asked Borat to “popularize” Kazakhstan, in fact their president protested directly at George Bush. But what is with Budapest, Hungary and the Hungarians?
Hungary’s image in Hollywood movies and its possible impact on tourists and film-investors
This essay collects and analyses the effects of Hungary’s appearance in international movies. The analysis is divided into five groups:
- When the film was shot here, but Budapest appears as Berlin, Rome, Paris, Moscow, or Buenos Aires (Spy Game, Munich, Red Heat, Evita, Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam)
- When the shooting and the story also took place in Hungary (I Spy)
- When Hungary appears in the movie, although it was not shot here (MacGyver – Thief of Budapest, The Transporter 3.)
- When none of the previous cases happens, but one of the characters is Hungarian (Casablanca, The Whole Nine Yards, Iron Man, Die Hard 3.)
- When the characters speak Hungarian, but it sounds as a nonsense language (Blade Runner).
Let’s Bring Hungary into Fashion!
Souvenirs in a New and Organized Manner
For every country it is quite important to understand what tourists take home from their visit. It is referred to as souvenir, but some call it country merchandising. Among these items there are the usual “favourites”, which can be found in every country with its own label: T-shirt, baseball cap, bag, mug, pen, magnet, key chain, etc. In terms of country branding there are numerous problems with this kind of merchandise:
- Most of them are poor quality.
- They are rarely distinctive and unique of the given country.
- Locals would not even think of using or wearing these items, nor would they be proud of doing so.
- There is little or no regulation by the state regarding the visual identity of the country.
- It is even more seldom to find a nationwide plan for this case.
The article will show two recent Hungarian initiatives which try to change this picture. These initiatives end up in satisfied tourists who are able to buy good quality souvenirs and local citizens, who can proudly wear and use them, contributing to a stronger identity. The research is based on in-depth interviews with the leaders of the mentioned initiatives.
Click here to see these initiatives!
Another version (Rethinking and reorganization of souvenirs) can be downloaded here.
Viral advertising in tourism: a creative tool to promote countries and cities (2017)
Settlements, regions and countries producing viral videos desire to draw the attention of tourists or the media.
But what should a viral video promoting tourism be like? This study presents some of the most successful international best practices. Examples include a viral campaign for a country with several million citizens and an advertising campaign for a village with 78 inhabitants. There is one thing in common: we can learn from all of them. Click here for the details!
How to Reach the Next Generation: Hip-hop Marketing
Hip-Hop touches on music, clothes and shoes, culture and lifestyle. Jumping on the hip-hop bandwagon is a sure-fire method to reach into the wallets of the younger generation and establish the much needed brand loyalty.
This article was published in the book "Marketing from the Trenches: Perspectives on the Road Ahead", edited by Nicolas Papadopoulos and Cleopatra Veloutsou.
Girl Power in Tourism - How to Market a Country to Women
Every day we can read a new scientific study that confirms the physiological differences between the sexes. However, men and women are not only biologically but also "shopologically" different. Women are the major target group of fashion, beauty, health... and tourism. As this case study shows, it is definitely worth creating targeted messages to women since they have the money, they usually have more time than men, and they are the ones who make the decisions on travel within the family. Read more about "girl power" and the "Ladies' Britain" campaign here.
Brands and Branding - Lecture at IBS
My Greek friend, Mihalis Kavaratzis Ph.D. invited me to IBS (International Business School Budapest) to hold a lecture on Brands and Branding. I collected some of the best recent branding ideas, so the students enjoyed the presentation very much - according to Mihalis. Here is your chance to download the pdf.
The Birth of Branding – A Historical Review of the First Brands (2016)
Which was the first brand? This is a question that marketing professionals and ordinary people interested in brands may ask. And by the way, when did brands appear in our life? Well, these questions are not easy to answer. This study summarizes our knowledge of the topic, and concludes by presenting how the tools used by the first brands can be applied for today’s modern brands. Download „The birth of branding” here!
How to Build a Sport Celebrity Brand? - A Case Study of David Beckham
MDavid Beckham may not be the finest footballer but he is definitely the biggest football celebrity brand. But how could a footballer turn into a global brand? And why him? Having looked at this summary, it will be much easier to answer this question. Click here to download the pdf (with a lot of pictures).
Puskás, the World Brand: Celebrity Endorsements, Brand Expansions and Other Curious Phenomena
According to various surveys, „Puskás” is the most well-known Hungarian word. This „brand” is not just known around the world, but respected and loved. Puskás became a world star in a time when there was no Internet and television had just started gaining popularity. But why did he become so great, not only as a player but as a brand too? The article looks for the marketing aspects of this brilliant story. It covers his celebrity endorsements/sponsors, and the products/brands which used or use his (brand) name. The possible future of the Puskás brand is also discussed. Click here for the Puskás-story!
The Use of Sports Celebrities in Advertising: Best and Worst Practices
When should we use an athlete, a sports star in advertising? Which type of product or service is best suitable for these stars to advertise? What can we expect from these ads? Who is the ideal sports star? Is it true that social media is going to transform this area as well? For our research we examined print ads and television commercials using famous athletes such as David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Rafael Nadal, Tiger Woods, Maria Sharapova or Serena Williams. Click here to download the full article!
Creativity through the eyes of first year marketing students
In our higher education institution, the Budapest College of Communication, Business and Arts, we have introduced an experimental creative thinking training programme spanning two days. The programme precedes all other subjects - as a matter of fact, this is the students' first contact point with the institution. In the first part of the course we examine how newly accepted students of the bachelor programme in commerce and marketing approach creativity, what they consider the most creative thing, and who is the most creative personality in their opinion. We also ask when was the last time they had a creative idea, and what their motivation was behind it. As we (me and my colleagues Gábor Rekettye and Andrea Kunsági) evaluate the results of the survey, we also touch upon the extent how student opinions about creativity reflect the statements of the bibliography. Download it here!
Building business fables, tales and short stories into marketing education
Tales are short and business people have less and less time. Tales carry a universal moral, while managers look for basic principles. Tales are simple, and simplification is essential in business world. Good always wins in tales, while workers in the corporate world are success-oriented. In addition, the smallest one always wins in tales, and we all need such motivating examples. It is no wonder that an increasing number of short story books used in business education (that also can be read during a short flight or train) has been published in the past decade. Before we would sneer at the genre, it is worth seeing who the authors are - they include peo-ple with considerable scientific record such as John P. Kotter ("Our Iceberg is Melting!"), Ken Blanchard ("The One Minute Manager" series), Spencer Johnson ("Who Cut the Cheese?" among others), Stephen C. London ("FISH!"). Click here to download the article!
Marketing wars - military analogies in the marketing and management literature (2015)
War metaphors have been used for a long time in the world of marketing, and, in a broader sense, that of management. The most popular sources are probably the wisdoms of Chinese General Sun Tzu, the advices of German General Clausewitz, and, of course, the guerrilla ideas of Che Guevara. Click here for the article: Marketing wars - military analogies in the marketing and management literature
The effect of trust on the performance and satisfaction of co-operative members at the Paprikakertész producer organisation (2017)
This paper examines the impact of trust in an agricultural marketing cooperative. The aim is to explore how the trust among members and between members and management affect the commitment of members towards the cooperative (group cohesion) and their satisfaction with the cooperative. Trust is examined from two dimensions: cognitive and affective. The main author of the article is my great colleague, Zsolt Baranyai. Click here to download the paper.
Are there no new ad techniques under the sun? How the methods presented to us today as 'new discoveries' appeared in Hungarian advertising literature a century ago (2016)
It is a frequently held notion that advertising appeared in Hungary (and the whole of East-Central Europe) and began to develop rapidly only during the 1990’s, after the fall of Communism. Indeed, today’s advertising professionals will throw around sonorous terms such as ‘brand’, ‘word of mouth’, ‘integrated marketing communications’, ‘USP’, ‘CSR’, ‘astroturfing’, ‘AIDA’, ‘collective advertising’, and so on, with a casual ease that would have been unimaginable 25 years ago. Moreover, some of those terms are used in their original English form, showing, as it were, that they have been adopted straight from ‘the West’, and that the concepts they refer to are so fresh that no Hungarian equivalents have been created yet. But have Hungarian advertising experts really adopted these concepts from abroad? As we will see, the answer is a clear ‘no’. Hungarian advertising was well-established already by the 1910’s and 1920’s, and Hungarian advertising science was in the process of becoming firmly grounded too. Several works were published that laid the foundations of advertising. . Even more interestingly, the abovementioned concepts already appeared in these works written almost a hundred years ago, even though they did not use today’s professional terminology at the time. Explore the beginnings of Hungarian advertising science here!
The Depiction of Advertising Industry in Novels and Their Incorporation in Education
While many quantitative methods are available to judge advertising profession, yet no or limited qualitative research is available. This study aims to do the latter with a unique approach analysing how various novels portray the advertising profession. The author of this article recommends that besides textbooks, novels based on the advertising industry should also be recommended to the students’ attention. By reading these novels they may get a more exact and authentic representation, see the pros and cons of the advertising industry, and find out if they really have the motivation and persistence for this profession.
Click here for the full article!
The original article can be downloaded here.
Black mirror – the portrayal of advertising professionals in Hollywood movies (2015)
The use of movies is a neglected tool in communication education, although there are a large number of motion pictures that feature professionals who work in advertising, marketing, or public relations, and these movies could be used excellently as illustrations in classrooms.
At the same time it is a fact that movies often stereotype these professions; furthermore, in the majority of cases, they depict them negatively. This, however, is probably just the result of the negative public image of the advertising industry in general, and movie makers’ efforts to create portrayals that are as dramatic as possible.
In this study we examine how 27 films depict the marketing and communications profession, with special regard to the characters’ personalities, clothes, appearance, family status, attitude to work and harmful habits.
See the results here: Black mirror – the portrayal of advertising professionals in Hollywood movies
The Rise of Product Placement in Hungary
In the last few years the European countries are starting to use the rules of the European Union about product placement. First of all it is really important for the European shows, programs and films to stay competitive with the American programs because in the USA product placement is permitted and an important financial source. Second of all with it the „ad avoiders” – who immediately switch the channel because of the commercials – are becoming available to target. The article describes the Hungarian situation and experiences because since this January product placement has become legal again. A detailed comparison between the classic TV commercial and product placement is also shown. Here are the details!
Product Placement and Branded Entertainment: Why Is It More Relevant Than Ever? (2015)
Although product placement, that is, the display of a product in a movie or a TV programme, has a history of several decades, it became increasingly significant and inevitable in the United States and Europe in the past years. This has several reasons:
- changes in consumers’ relationship to advertising
- technological progress, mainly digitalization,
- the reform of advertising,
- the needs of film and TV show production companies, and
- changes of the legal environment.
The Fall of the 30 second spot the rise of product placement and the reasons behind it (2015)
This are several reasons behind the fall of the 30 second spot and the rise of product placement:changes in consumers’ relationship to advertising; technological progess, mainly digitalization; the reform of advertising; the needs of film and TV show production companies, and changes of the legal environment. The study addresses these issues.
A Possible Categorization of Product Placement Based on its Position within the Film or TV Programme (2015)
In a certain sense product placement is the TV advertisement of the 2010s. While traditional advertising, and especially 30-second TV spots experience increasing difficulties, this genre is booming. Marketing literature, however, has only been catching up with practice recently. At this point there are no comprehensive publications on the categories of product placement, or how it could be divided into categories. The article examines what types of product placement we can differentiate by their position within the movie or TV programme. . Click here: A Possible Categorization of Product Placement Based on its Position within the Film or TV Programme.
When is Product Placement Effective from an Advertisers’ Perspective? Possible Methodologies for Measurement. (2015)
Although the history of product placement goes back further than the 30 second TV-spot, there is less experience regarding its measurement. Therefore there is a multitude of approaches and methodologies, but none of them is generally accepted. The article shows two approaches. One of them focuses on how a specific placement can be interpreted as a media appearance. The other one analyses a more complete spectrum, that is, marketing and communications impact and effectiveness. When is Product Placement Effective from an Advertisers’ Perspective? Possible Methodologies for Measurement.
The beginnings of product placement in cinematography, literature and fine arts – or, branded entertainment is not something new under the sun (2015)
Most sources state that the appearance of brands in films and TV programmes, that is, product placement, began with E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial in1982. However, as the examples in this study demonstrate, the first appearance of brands in films can be dated much earlier. The Lumiere brothers came up with a two-minute film with half of it being product placement as early as 1896. But, as the study proves, the genre of product placement is even older than films. Many examples prove that brands have been with us for a long time through literature and fine art sas well, and they will probably stay with us for long. Read the details here: The beginnings of product placement in cinematography, literature and fine arts – or, branded entertainment is not something new under the sun.
Product placement in music videos – The Lady Gaga phenomenon (2015)
One does not even have to watch today’s music videos very attentively in order to recognize that brands appear in them from time to time. However, this was not always the case. The changing policies of Music Television, the introduction of VEVO (a music video channel launched on Youtube), and the widening use of product placement in general have all played a significant role in the changes of the landscape, the increasing number of product placements in music videos. The paper examines the spread of brand/product placement in music videos, also known as the Lady Gaga effect. Click here for the Lady Gaga phenomenom: Product placement in music videos!
Old brands come to life: Historic product placement in the light of Mad Men, an American series (2017)
Mad Men is not only one of the favourite series of advertising professionals; its fan base is much wider. The series takes us to the 1960s, offering an insight into the life of a fictional agency called Sterling Cooper. The era depicted here is especially interesting because it was the golden age of television advertisements and advertising agencies located at Madison Avenue as well. Therefore it is exciting to see Sterling Cooper employees working on the briefs of well-known brands, presenting their ideas to the clients. But what are these brands? Click here for the article!
Which way is product placement going? 11 expected trends
In a certain sense, product placement is the TV commercial of the 2010s. While traditional advertising, and, especially, 30-second TV spots face increasing difficulties, product placement is thriving. Most people grab their remote controls and switch to other channels during commercial breaks, so it seems logical that advertisers tend to place their products/brands in the film/programme itself.
But what about the future of this marketingcommunication genre? The following article discusses 11 predicted trends of product placement. However, we should not forget that the famous physicist Niels Bohr was right: ”Prediction is very difficult, especially if it's about the future”.
Read my predictions here: Which way is product placement going? 11 expected trends
How much does it cost for advertisers to place their products in movies? Categories according to the financial background of the cooperation
The average budget of American blockbuster movies has now reached 100 million US dollars. It is no wonder that product placement has become almost essential in the financing of these films. But how much does it cost for advertisers to place their brands in movies, and what is the basis of pricing?
Does it actually cost money, or is it a barter? Is it perchance placed for free, or do filmmakers even pay the brands appearing in the movie?
Experience shows that certainly there is no standard way of product placement (especially in the case of movies), thus there is no standard pricing, either.
Read the full article here: How much does it cost for advertisers to place their products in movies?
For a long time we thought that good vodka comes from Russia, Poland or Scandinavia. Today there are prestige vodkas from France, Scotland, Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, and even from New-Zealand and Japan. The most intriguing is that, while in the past even non-Russian vodka brands tried to be a little Russian with their labels such as Gorbatschow, from Germany, or Kalinka, from Hungary, the new and ambitious brands are particularly proud of their origins.
Usual country of origin versus Proud Made In
The highest growth rate could be seen in the past years in the ultra-premium segment of vodkas consisting of bottles priced at 25 or more US dollars. And surprising as it is the winner in this category was not Russia but France. There are other prestige vodkas from Scotland, Ireland, Switzerland, Austria, and even from New-Zealand and Japan. This changing world order can only be accomplished along with the openness of customers. They are the ones intentionally looking for “exotic vodka brands”. The case of vodka clearly shows that today being different and new can mean much more than traditions even in the case of the most traditional markets.
Vodka Globalisation: Competitors from All over the World